Monthly Archives: August 2014

Day One Junos Cup 2014

A Juniper lançou mais um capitulo da série Day One, desta vez sobre o Junos Cup 2014. Este contem os cenários dos 4 torneios (e death playoff) bem como as soluções oficiais, fornece ainda a melhor solução enviada pelos participantes.

Consulte o link oficial em Day One Junos Cup 2014

Parabéns á equipa da Juniper pelo desafio apresentado, e respetivo fundador do conceito Junos Cup Antonio Sánchez-Monge.

 

junoscup_2014

 

 

Open Switch continua a crescer

Poderemos em breve ver switches com um brand á medida? A Facebook talvez seja um dos primeiros a fazê-lo… Atualmente dependemos muito do hardware dos fabricantes onde o software é desenhado especificamente para essa plataforma. Com isto não é possível desagregar o hardware do software de forma alguma…

A Facebook em conjunto com a Open Compute Project (OCP) introduz o “Wedge” como um novo protótipo de switch top-of-rack e um novo sistema operativo para o mesmo de nome “FBOSS”

O grande objectivo da parceria entre Facebook e Open Compute Project (OCP) é reduzir ao máximo o custo das infraestruturas e aumentar a sua eficiência.

10333122_779825828716274_1114130333_n.png 10173498_655852611162022_1103167099_n.png

 

Referências:

Open Compute Project

Introducing “Wedge” and “FBOSS,” the next steps toward a disaggregated network

 

Update exame CCNP Routing and Switching v2

A certificação CCNP Routing and Switching será renovada em breve para a versão 2, consultar o link CCNP Routing and Switching para mais detalhes. A Cisco disponibiliza a CCNP exam combination tool para facilitar os exames necessários para quem realizou alguns do antigo curso.
A versão do IOS para esta nova versão é a 15.2

Recommended Training
642-902 ROUTE
Last day to test January 29, 2015
OR
300-101 ROUTE
Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE)
Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) v2.0
AND
642-813 SWITCH
Last day to test January 29, 2015
OR
300-115 SWITCH
Implementing Cisco IP Switched Networks (SWITCH)
Implementing Cisco IP Switched Networks (SWITCH) v2.0
AND
642-832 TSHOOT
Last day to test January 29, 2015

OR
300-135 TSHOOT
Troubleshooting and Maintaining Cisco IP Networks (TSHOOT)
Troubleshooting and Maintaining Cisco IP Networks (TSHOOT) v2.0


Objectivos Exame 300-101 ROUTE inclui:

  • Network Principles
  • Layer 2 Technologies
  • Layer 3 Technologies
  • VPN Technologies
  • Infrastructure Security
  • Infrastructure Services

**Clique para expandir/colapsar os objectivos em detalhe**
Objectivos Exame 300-115 SWITCH inclui:
  • Layer 2 Technologies
  • Infrastructure Security
  • Infrastructure Services

**Clique para expandir/colapsar os objectivos em detalhe**
Objectivos Exame 300-135 TSHOOT inclui:
  • Network Principles
  • Layer 2 Technologies
  • Layer 3 Technologies
  • VPN Technologies
  • Infrastructure Security
  • Infrastructure Services

**Clique para expandir/colapsar os objectivos em detalhe**

Referências:

ROUTE Exam

ROUTE Exam v2.0

SWITCH Exam

SWITCH Exam v2.0

TSHOOT Exam

TSHOOT Exam v2.0

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 18

Nota: Este Post faz parte do guide de Routing.

Appendix C Routing Information Protocol

Protocolo IGP
RIPv1 RFC 1058
RIPv2 RFC 2453

Distance-vector protocol
Métrica baseada no hop count (Max 16 hops, o 16 é designado de infinity)
Algoritmo baseado no Bellman Ford
Updates enviados a cada 30 segundos via broadcast

RIP Message Types

Request message
Response message – adverte até 25 rotas por update

RIPv2 Features

Retrocompativel com RIPv1
Authenticacao simples ou MD5
Updates via Multicast 224.0.0.9, é possível usar também broadcast
Permite VLSM
Update inclui next-hop address
Retrocompativel com RIPv1
Em ambientes NBMA pode ser usado o unicast

RIPv1/v2 Interoperability

RFC 1723 define a interoperabilidade entre as 2 versões do RIP:

RIP-1 – Only RIPv1 messages transmit.
RIP-1 – Compatibility: Causes RIPv2 to broadcast its messages instead of multicasting them so that RIPv1 hosts can receive them.
RIP-2 – RIPv2 messages are multicast to destination address 224.0.0.9.
None – No updates are sent.

junOS RIP Support

RIPv1, RIPv2
Peer groups
Não adverte rotas by default, é necessário usar export policy
Default Preference 100
Modificar métricas IN e OUT

RIP Configuration

set protocol rip group <group-name> neighbor <interface-nama>

set policy-options policy-statement statics-to-rip from protocol static
set policy-options policy-statement statics-to-rip then accept

Export Policy

set protocols rip group rip-neighbors export statics-to-rip
set protocols rip group rip-neighbors neighbor fe-0/0/0.0
set protocols rip group rip-neighbors neighbor fe-0/0/1.0

[email protected]> show rip neighbor
Local Source Destination Send Receive In
Neighbor State Address Address Mode Mode Met
——– —– ——- ———– —- ——- —
em0.0 Up 10.1.23.2 224.0.0.9 mcast both 1
em1.0 Up 10.1.12.2 224.0.0.9 mcast both 1
lo0.0 Up 10.10.10.2 224.0.0.9 mcast both 1

Neighbor – Displays the name of the RIP neighbor.
State – Displays the state of the connection. The interface can be either up or down.
Source Address – Displays the source address.
Destination Address – Displays the destination of RIP updates, which can be either broadcast or multicast.
Send Mode – Displays the send options, which can be broadcast, multicast, none, or version 1.
Receive Mode – Displays the type of packets to accept, which can be both, none, version 1, or version 2.
In Met – Displays the metric added to incoming routes when advertising into RIP routes that were learned from other protocols.

[email protected]> show route protocol rip

inet.0: 8 destinations, 8 routes (8 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
+ = Active Route, – = Last Active, * = Both

10.10.10.1/32 *[RIP/100] 00:04:35, metric 2, tag 0
> to 10.1.12.1 via em1.0
10.10.10.3/32 *[RIP/100] 00:00:36, metric 2, tag 0
> to 10.1.23.3 via em0.0
224.0.0.9/32 *[RIP/100] 00:04:07, metric 1
MultiRecv

[email protected]> show route advertising-protocol rip 10.1.23.2

inet.0: 8 destinations, 8 routes (8 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
+ = Active Route, – = Last Active, * = Both

10.1.12.0/24 *[Direct/0] 00:06:08
> via em1.0
10.10.10.2/32 *[Direct/0] 00:06:04
> via lo0.0

[email protected]> show route receive-protocol rip 10.1.23.3

inet.0: 8 destinations, 8 routes (8 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
+ = Active Route, – = Last Active, * = Both

10.10.10.3/32 *[RIP/100] 00:00:06, metric 2, tag 0
> to 10.1.23.3 via em0.0

[email protected]> show rip statistics
RIPv2 info: port 520; holddown 120s.
rts learned rts held down rqsts dropped resps dropped
2 0 0 0

em0.0: 1 routes learned; 2 routes advertised; timeout 180s; update interval 30s
Counter Total Last 5 min Last minute
——- ———– ———– ———–
Updates Sent 20 11 3
Triggered Updates Sent 1 0 0
Responses Sent 0 0 0
Bad Messages 0 0 0
RIPv1 Updates Received 0 0 0
RIPv1 Bad Route Entries 0 0 0
RIPv1 Updates Ignored 0 0 0
RIPv2 Updates Received 13 10 2
RIPv2 Bad Route Entries 0 0 0
RIPv2 Updates Ignored 0 0 0
Authentication Failures 0 0 0
RIP Requests Received 0 0 0
RIP Requests Ignored 0 0 0
none 0 0 0

RIP info – Displays the information about RIP on the specified interface.
port – Displays the UDP port number used for RIP.
update interval – Displays the number of seconds since the last update.
holddown – Displays the hold-down interval, in seconds.
timeout – Displays the timeout interval, in seconds.
bad msgs – Displays the number of bad messages received.
rts learned – Displays the number of routes learned through RIP.
rts held down – Displays the number of routes held down by RIP.
rqst dropped – Displays the number of request messages dropped by RIP.
resp dropped – Displays the number of response messages dropped by RIP.
Counter – Displays the list of counter types.
Total – Displays the total number of packets for the selected counter.

Referências:

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 1

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 2

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 3

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 4

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 5

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 6

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 7

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 8

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 9

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 10

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 11

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 12

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 13

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 14

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 15

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 16

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 17

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 17

Nota: Este Post faz parte do guide de Routing.

[email protected]# run show isis interface
IS-IS interface database:
Interface L CirID Level 1 DR Level 2 DR L1/L2 Metric
em0.0 3 0x2 R2.00 R2.02 1000/10
em1.0 3 0x3 R2.03 R2.00 10/10
lo0.0 0 0x1 Passive Passive 0/0

Campos do output do comando show isis interface:
interface-name (detail output only) – Displays the name of the interface;
Index (detail output only) – Displays the interface index assigned by the junOS OS kernel;
State (detail output only) – Displays the internal implementation information;
Circuit ID (detail output only) – Displays the circuit identifier;
Circuit type (detail output only) – Displays the circuit type, which can be 1 —Level 1 only, 2 —Level 2 only, or 3 — Level 1 and Level 2;
LSP interval (detail output only) – Displays the interface’s link-state PDU interval;
Sysid (detail output only) – Displays the system identifier;
Interface (brief output only) – Displays the interface through which the adjacency is made.
Level 1 DR/Level 2 DR (brief output only) – Displays the Level 1 or Level 2 DIS;
L1/L2 Metric: Displays the interface’s metric for Level 1 and Level 2. If no information is present, the metric is 0;
Adjacencies (detail output only) – Displays the number of adjacencies established on the interface;
Priority (detail output only) – Displays the priority value for this interface;
Metric (detail output only) – Displays the metric value for this interface;
Hello(s) (detail output only) – Displays the interface’s hello interval; and
Hold(s) (detail output only) – Displays the interface’s hold time.

[email protected]# run show isis database
IS-IS level 1 link-state database:
LSP ID Sequence Checksum Lifetime Attributes
R1.00-00 0x1d 0xc00e 737 L1
R2.00-00 0x1a 0x1c02 341 L1 L2 Attached
R2.03-00 0x13 0x225d 341 L1 L2
3 LSPs

IS-IS level 2 link-state database:
LSP ID Sequence Checksum Lifetime Attributes
R1.00-00 0x5 0xa4c4 699 L1 L2
R2.00-00 0x21 0x6045 761 L1 L2
R2.02-00 0x16 0x4b30 341 L1 L2
R2.03-00 0x3 0 0 L1 L2
R3.00-00 0x1b 0x5e41 1013 L1 L2
5 LSPs

Campos do output do comando show isis database:
LSP ID – Displays the link-state PDU identifier;
Sequence – Displays the sequence number of the link-state PDU;
Checksum – Displays the checksum value of the link-state PDU;
Lifetime (secs) – Displays the remaining lifetime of the link-state PDU, in seconds;
IP prefix (detail and extensive output only) – Displays the prefix advertised by the link-state PDU;
IS neighbor (detail output only) – Displays an IS-IS neighbor of the advertising system; and
Metric (detail and extensive output only) – Displays the metric of the prefix or neighbor.

[email protected]# run show isis adjacency
Interface System L State Hold (secs) SNPA
em0.0 R3 2 Up 23 0:ab:44:8:f8:0
em1.0 R1 1 Up 25 0:ab:ae:99:e3:0

Interface – Displays the interface through wh ich the neighbor is reachable.
System (brief output only) – Displays the system identifier, printed as a name if possible.
L – Displays the level, which can be 1 —Level 1 only; 2 —Level 2 only;
or 3 —Level 1 and Level 2. An exclamation point ( ! ) preceding the level number indicates that the adjacency is missing an IP address.
State – Displays the state of the adjacency. It can be Up, Down, New , One-way, Initializing, or Rejected .
Hold (secs) (brief/standard output only) – Displays the remaining hold time of the adjacency. Note that the show isis adjacency command returns brief output by default.
SNPA (brief output only) – Displays the SNPA (MAC address of the next hop).

[email protected]# run show isis adjacency detail
R3
Interface: em0.0, Level: 2, State: Up, Expires in 24 secs
Priority: 64, Up/Down transitions: 1, Last transition: 00:14:29 ago
Circuit type: 3, Speaks: IP, IPv6, MAC address: 0:ab:44:8:f8:0
Topologies: Unicast
Restart capable: Yes, Adjacency advertisement: Advertise
LAN id: R2.02, IP addresses: 10.1.23.3

R1
Interface: em1.0, Level: 1, State: Up, Expires in 26 secs
Priority: 64, Up/Down transitions: 3, Last transition: 03:04:35 ago
Circuit type: 3, Speaks: IP, IPv6, MAC address: 0:ab:ae:99:e3:0
Topologies: Unicast
Restart capable: Yes, Adjacency advertisement: Advertise
LAN id: R2.03, IP addresses: 10.1.12.1

Campos do output do comando show isis adjacency detail:
Expires in (detail output only): Displays the time until the adjacency expires, in seconds;
Priority (detail output only): Displays the priority to become the DIS;
Up/Down transitions (detail output only): Displays the count of adjacency status changes from up to down or from down to up;
Last transition (detail output only): Displays the time of the last up or down transition;
Circuit type (detail output only): Displays the bit mask of levels on this interface, which can be 1 —Level 1 router, 2 —Level 2 router, or 1/2 —both Level 1 and Level 2 routers;
Speaks (detail output only): Displays the protocols supported by the neighbor; and
IP addresses (detail output only): Displays the IP address of the neighbor.

[email protected]# run show isis spf log
IS-IS level 1 SPF log:
Start time Elapsed (secs) Count Reason
Fri Jul 25 19:01:08 0.000200 3 Lost adjacency R3 on em0.0
Fri Jul 25 19:01:16 0.000189 2 Multi area attachment change
Fri Jul 25 19:15:55 0.000791 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 19:19:08 0.000194 1 Updated LSP R3.00-00
Fri Jul 25 19:33:52 0.000201 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 19:46:27 0.000353 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 19:58:41 0.000201 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 20:12:13 0.000216 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 20:24:59 0.000187 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 20:36:44 0.000276 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 20:49:43 0.000207 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 21:03:50 0.000207 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 21:15:21 0.000252 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 21:25:16 0.000215 1 Updated LSP R1.00-00
Fri Jul 25 21:25:26 0.000209 1 Updated LSP R1.00-00
Fri Jul 25 21:25:30 0.000123 1 Updated LSP R1.00-00
Fri Jul 25 21:25:41 0.000222 1 Updated LSP R1.00-00
Fri Jul 25 21:31:15 0.000191 3 Multi area attachment change
Fri Jul 25 21:32:21 0.000180 3 Multi area attachment change
Fri Jul 25 21:38:59 0.000193 1 Updated LSP R1.00-00

IS-IS level 2 SPF log:
Start time Elapsed (secs) Count Reason
Fri Jul 25 18:55:55 0.000060 1 Updated LSP R2.00-00
Fri Jul 25 19:01:08 0.000126 7 Lost adjacency R3 on em0.0
Fri Jul 25 19:01:09 0.000174 2 Updated LSP R2.00-00
Fri Jul 25 19:01:16 0.000388 1 Updated LSP R3.00-00
Fri Jul 25 19:13:30 0.000202 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 19:26:28 0.000536 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 19:38:54 0.000185 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 19:52:54 0.000195 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 20:07:49 0.000206 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 20:19:58 0.000199 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 20:34:46 0.000226 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 20:46:44 0.000184 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 21:00:02 0.000180 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 21:14:24 0.000211 1 Periodic SPF
Fri Jul 25 21:25:16 0.000101 6 Topologies changed for adjacency R1 on em1.0
Fri Jul 25 21:25:30 0.000090 2 Purging LSP R1.00-00
Fri Jul 25 21:25:36 0.000063 1 Updated LSP R1.00-00
Fri Jul 25 21:31:15 0.000301 3 Lost adjacency R3 on em0.0
Fri Jul 25 21:32:21 0.000266 5 Topologies changed for adjacency R3 on em0.0
Fri Jul 25 21:39:21 0.000218 3 Lost adjacency R1 on em1.0

Campos do output do comando show isis spf log:
Node: Displays the system ID of a node;
Metric : Displays the metric to the node;
Interface: Displays the interface of the next hop;
Via : Displays the system ID of the next hop;
SNPA: Displays the SNPA (MAC address of the next hop);
Start time (log output only): Displays the time that the SPF computation started;
Elapsed time (log output only): Displays the length of time required to complete the SPF computation in seconds;
Count (log output only): Displays the number of times the SPF was triggered; and
Reason (log output only): Displays the reason that the SPF computation was completed.

[email protected]# run show isis statistics
IS-IS statistics for R2:
PDU type Received Processed Drops Sent Rexmit
LSP 75 75 0 186 0
IIH 5404 54 1567 12380 0
CSNP 0 0 0 2784 0
PSNP 7 7 0 0 0
Unknown 0 0 0 0 0
Totals 5486 136 1567 15350 0

Total packets received: 5486 Sent: 15350

SNP queue length: 0 Drops: 0
LSP queue length: 0 Drops: 0
SPF runs: 76
Fragments rebuilt: 112
LSP regenerations: 50
Purges initiated: 7

Campos do output do comando show isis statistics:
PDU type : Displays the PDU type.
Received : Displays the number of PDUs received since IS-IS started or since the statistics were zeroed.
Processed: Displays the number of PDUs received minus the number dropped.
Drops: Displays the number of dropped PDUs.
Sent: Displays the number of PDUs transmitted since IS-IS started or since the statistics were zeroed.
Rexmit : Displays the number of PDUs retransmitted since IS-IS started or since the statistics were zeroed.
Total packets received/sent: Displays the total number of PDUs received and transmitted since IS-IS started or since the statistics were zeroed.
SNP queue length : Displays the number of CSNPs and PSNPs sitting on the sequence number packets (SNP) queue waiting for processing. This value is almost always 0.
LSP queue length : Displays the number of link-state PDUs sitting on the link-state PDU queue waiting for processing. This value is almost always 0.
SPF runs : Displays the number of SPF calculations performed. If this number is incrementing rapidly, it indicates that the network is unstable.
Fragments rebuilt: Displays the number of link-state PDU fragments that the local system has computed.
LSP regenerations: Displays the number of link-state PDUs that were regenerated. A link-state PDU is regenerated when it is nearing the end of its lifetime and it has not changed.
Purges initiated: Displays the number of purges that the system initiated. A purge is initiated if the software decides that a link-state PDU must be removed from the network.

[email protected]# run show isis route
IS-IS routing table Current version: L1: 36 L2: 40
IPv4/IPv6 Routes
—————-
Prefix L Version Metric Type Interface NH Via
10.10.10.1/32 1 36 10 int em1.0 IPV4 R1
10.10.10.3/32 2 40 10 int em0.0 IPV4 R3

Campos do output do comando show isis route:
Current version: Displays the number of the current version of the IS-IS routing table.
L1: Displays the version of the Level 1 SPF that was run.
L2: Displays the version of the Level 2 SPF that was run.
Prefix : Displays the destination of the route.
L : Displays the level, which can be 1 —Level 1 only; 2 —Level 2 only; and 3 —Level 1 and Level 2.
Version: Displays the version (or run) of SPF that generated the route.
Metric : Displays the metric value associated with the route.
Type: Displays the metric type. It can be int (internal) or ext (external).
Interface: Displays the interface to the next hop.
Via : Displays the system ID of the next hop, displayed as a name if possible.

[email protected]# run show isis database extensive
IS-IS level 1 link-state database:

R1.00-00 Sequence: 0x1d, Checksum: 0xc00e, Lifetime: 700 secs
IS neighbor: R2.03 Metric: 10
Two-way fragment: R2.03-00, Two-way first fragment: R2.03-00
IP prefix: 10.1.12.0/24 Metric: 10 Internal Up
IP prefix: 10.10.10.1/32 Metric: 0 Internal Up

Header: LSP ID: R1.00-00, Length: 141 bytes
Allocated length: 284 bytes, Router ID: 10.10.10.1
Remaining lifetime: 700 secs, Level: 1, Interface: 66
Estimated free bytes: 164, Actual free bytes: 143
Aging timer expires in: 700 secs
Protocols: IP, IPv6

Packet: LSP ID: R1.00-00, Length: 141 bytes, Lifetime : 1198 secs
Checksum: 0xc00e, Sequence: 0x1d, Attributes: 0x1 <L1>
NLPID: 0x83, Fixed length: 27 bytes, Version: 1, Sysid length: 0 bytes
Packet type: 18, Packet version: 1, Max area: 0

TLVs:
Area address: 49.0001 (3)
Speaks: IP
Speaks: IPV6
IP router id: 10.10.10.1
IP address: 10.10.10.1
Hostname: R1
IS neighbor: R2.03, Internal, Metric: default 10
IS extended neighbor: R2.03, Metric: default 10
IP address: 10.1.12.1
Local interface index: 64, Remote interface index: 0
IP prefix: 10.1.12.0/24, Internal, Metric: default 10, Up
IP prefix: 10.10.10.1/32, Internal, Metric: default 0, Up
IP extended prefix: 10.1.12.0/24 metric 10 up
IP extended prefix: 10.10.10.1/32 metric 0 up
No queued transmissions

Campos do output do comando show isis database extensive:
LSP ID : Displays the link-state PDU identifier;
Sequence : Displays the sequence number of the link-state PDU;
Checksum : Displays the checksum value of the link-state PDU;
Lifetime (in seconds): Displays the remaining lifetime of the link-state PDU, in seconds;
IP prefix (detail and extensive output only): Displays the prefix advertised by this link-state PDU;
IS neighbor (detail output only): Displays an IS-IS neighbor of the advertising system; and
Metric (detail and extensive output only): Displays the metric of the prefix or neighbor.

IP Configuration is Not necessary

O IS-IS permite formar adjacencias entre neighbors que não estejam configurados com a mesma subnet, isto porque não se baseia no IP.

Troubleshooting No adjacency

Mismatched Areas
MTU minimo 1492
Sem NET configurado

Referências:

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 1

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 2

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 3

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 4

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 5

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 6

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 7

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 8

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 9

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 10

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 11

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 12

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 13

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 14

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 15

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 16