Tag Archives: Export Policy

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 18

Nota: Este Post faz parte do guide de Routing.

Appendix C Routing Information Protocol

Protocolo IGP
RIPv1 RFC 1058
RIPv2 RFC 2453

Distance-vector protocol
Métrica baseada no hop count (Max 16 hops, o 16 é designado de infinity)
Algoritmo baseado no Bellman Ford
Updates enviados a cada 30 segundos via broadcast

RIP Message Types

Request message
Response message – adverte até 25 rotas por update

RIPv2 Features

Retrocompativel com RIPv1
Authenticacao simples ou MD5
Updates via Multicast 224.0.0.9, é possível usar também broadcast
Permite VLSM
Update inclui next-hop address
Retrocompativel com RIPv1
Em ambientes NBMA pode ser usado o unicast

RIPv1/v2 Interoperability

RFC 1723 define a interoperabilidade entre as 2 versões do RIP:

RIP-1 – Only RIPv1 messages transmit.
RIP-1 – Compatibility: Causes RIPv2 to broadcast its messages instead of multicasting them so that RIPv1 hosts can receive them.
RIP-2 – RIPv2 messages are multicast to destination address 224.0.0.9.
None – No updates are sent.

junOS RIP Support

RIPv1, RIPv2
Peer groups
Não adverte rotas by default, é necessário usar export policy
Default Preference 100
Modificar métricas IN e OUT

RIP Configuration

set protocol rip group <group-name> neighbor <interface-nama>

set policy-options policy-statement statics-to-rip from protocol static
set policy-options policy-statement statics-to-rip then accept

Export Policy

set protocols rip group rip-neighbors export statics-to-rip
set protocols rip group rip-neighbors neighbor fe-0/0/0.0
set protocols rip group rip-neighbors neighbor fe-0/0/1.0

[email protected]> show rip neighbor
Local Source Destination Send Receive In
Neighbor State Address Address Mode Mode Met
——– —– ——- ———– —- ——- —
em0.0 Up 10.1.23.2 224.0.0.9 mcast both 1
em1.0 Up 10.1.12.2 224.0.0.9 mcast both 1
lo0.0 Up 10.10.10.2 224.0.0.9 mcast both 1

Neighbor – Displays the name of the RIP neighbor.
State – Displays the state of the connection. The interface can be either up or down.
Source Address – Displays the source address.
Destination Address – Displays the destination of RIP updates, which can be either broadcast or multicast.
Send Mode – Displays the send options, which can be broadcast, multicast, none, or version 1.
Receive Mode – Displays the type of packets to accept, which can be both, none, version 1, or version 2.
In Met – Displays the metric added to incoming routes when advertising into RIP routes that were learned from other protocols.

[email protected]> show route protocol rip

inet.0: 8 destinations, 8 routes (8 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
+ = Active Route, – = Last Active, * = Both

10.10.10.1/32 *[RIP/100] 00:04:35, metric 2, tag 0
> to 10.1.12.1 via em1.0
10.10.10.3/32 *[RIP/100] 00:00:36, metric 2, tag 0
> to 10.1.23.3 via em0.0
224.0.0.9/32 *[RIP/100] 00:04:07, metric 1
MultiRecv

[email protected]> show route advertising-protocol rip 10.1.23.2

inet.0: 8 destinations, 8 routes (8 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
+ = Active Route, – = Last Active, * = Both

10.1.12.0/24 *[Direct/0] 00:06:08
> via em1.0
10.10.10.2/32 *[Direct/0] 00:06:04
> via lo0.0

[email protected]> show route receive-protocol rip 10.1.23.3

inet.0: 8 destinations, 8 routes (8 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
+ = Active Route, – = Last Active, * = Both

10.10.10.3/32 *[RIP/100] 00:00:06, metric 2, tag 0
> to 10.1.23.3 via em0.0

[email protected]> show rip statistics
RIPv2 info: port 520; holddown 120s.
rts learned rts held down rqsts dropped resps dropped
2 0 0 0

em0.0: 1 routes learned; 2 routes advertised; timeout 180s; update interval 30s
Counter Total Last 5 min Last minute
——- ———– ———– ———–
Updates Sent 20 11 3
Triggered Updates Sent 1 0 0
Responses Sent 0 0 0
Bad Messages 0 0 0
RIPv1 Updates Received 0 0 0
RIPv1 Bad Route Entries 0 0 0
RIPv1 Updates Ignored 0 0 0
RIPv2 Updates Received 13 10 2
RIPv2 Bad Route Entries 0 0 0
RIPv2 Updates Ignored 0 0 0
Authentication Failures 0 0 0
RIP Requests Received 0 0 0
RIP Requests Ignored 0 0 0
none 0 0 0

RIP info – Displays the information about RIP on the specified interface.
port – Displays the UDP port number used for RIP.
update interval – Displays the number of seconds since the last update.
holddown – Displays the hold-down interval, in seconds.
timeout – Displays the timeout interval, in seconds.
bad msgs – Displays the number of bad messages received.
rts learned – Displays the number of routes learned through RIP.
rts held down – Displays the number of routes held down by RIP.
rqst dropped – Displays the number of request messages dropped by RIP.
resp dropped – Displays the number of response messages dropped by RIP.
Counter – Displays the list of counter types.
Total – Displays the total number of packets for the selected counter.

Referências:

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 1

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 2

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 3

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 4

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 5

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 6

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 7

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 8

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 9

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 10

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 11

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 12

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 13

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 14

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 15

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 16

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 17

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 12

Nota: Este Post faz parte do guide de Routing.

Configuring BGP

set routing-options router-id 192.168.100.1
set routing-options autonomous-system 65503

!iBGP Peering
set protocols bgp group int-65503 type internal
set protocols bgp group int-65503 local-address 192.168.100.1
set protocols bgp group int-65503 neighbor 192.168.100.2

!eBGP Peering
set protocols bgp group ext-65501 type external
set protocols bgp group ext-65501 peer-AS 65501
set protocols bgp group ext-65501 neighbor 172.30.1.2

set policy-options policy-statement next-hop-self-policy term alter-next-hop then next-hop self

Nota: não usar action accept em conjunto com next-hop, porque efetivamente faz match de todas as rotas

!Usar o Next-hop self address
set protocols bgp group int-65503 export next-hop-self-policy

Advertising the Aggregate Route

set routing-options aggregate route 172.24.0.0/22

set policy-options policy-statement adv-aggregate term match-aggregate from protocol aggregate
set policy-options policy-statement adv-aggregate term match-aggregate from route-filter 172.24.0.0/22 exact
set policy-options policy-statement adv-aggregate term match-aggregate then accept

!Advertise the aggregate
set protocols bgp group ext-65501 export adv-aggregate

O import e export de policies podem ser aplicadas nas sessões BGP no neighbor, group ou ao nível do protocolo. O router aplica apenas a policy import/export mais especifica, as policies configuradas serão inerentes nos níveis mais baixos, caso não exista policy nos níveis mais baixos. No entanto se existir policy nos níveis mais baixos será aplicada a respectiva policy.

set protocols bgp import add-community
set protocols bgp export alt-next-hop

set protocols bgp groups ISPs type external
set protocols bgp groups ISPs import alt-local-pref
set protocols bgp groups ISPs export adv-aggregate
set protocols bgp groups ISPs neighbor 172.25.1.1 peer-as 65100

set protocols bgp groups ISPs neighbor 172.25.2.1 export adv-custom
set protocols bgp groups ISPs neighbor 172.25.2.1 peer-as 65200

set protocols bgp groups Internal-Peers type internal
set protocols bgp groups Internal-Peers neighbor 192.168.100.10
set protocols bgp groups Internal-Peers neighbor 192.168.100.20

Import Policy Versus Export Policy

Routes from BGP Peers->RIB-In->Import Policy->RIB-Local (Route table)->Export policy->RIB-Out->Routes to BGP Peers

Só é possível exportar active routes. Por exemplo, se o router receber uma rota via BGP e OSPF sera escolhida a do OSPF devido a sua preference causando assim a inactive BGP route. É possível alterar este comportamento usando o advertise-inactive

Displaying BGP Summary Information

[email protected]# run show bgp summary
Groups: 1 Peers: 1 Down peers: 0
Table          Tot Paths  Act Paths Suppressed    History Damp State    Pending
inet.0
0          0          0          0          0          0
Peer                     AS      InPkt     OutPkt    OutQ   Flaps Last Up/Dwn State|#Active/Received/Accepted/Damped…
172.16.110.2          65502         13         12       0       0        4:29 0/0/0/0              0/0/0/0

Output fields do comando show bgp summary:

Groups : Displays the number of BGP groups;
Peers: Displays the number of BGP peers;
Down peers: Displays the number of unestablished BGP peers;
Peer: Displays the address of each BGP peer; each peer has one line of output;
AS: Displays the peer’s AS number;
InPkt: Displays the number of packets received from the peer;
OutPkt : Displays the number of packets sent to the peer;
OutQ: Displays the count of the number of BGP packets queued to be transmitted to a particular neighbor; it
usually is 0 because the queue is emptied quickly;
Last Up/Down: Displays the last time since the neighbor transitioned to or form the established state; and
State: Displays either the BGP state or, if the neighbor is connected, the number of paths received from the
neighbor, the number of these paths that have been accepted as active and are being used for forwarding, and the
number of routes being damped.

[email protected]# run show bgp neighbor
Peer: 172.16.110.2+57229 AS 65502 Local: 172.16.110.1+179 AS 65501
Type: External    State: Established    Flags: <Sync>
Last State: OpenConfirm   Last Event: RecvKeepAlive
Last Error: None
Export: [ policy-out ]
Options: <Preference PeerAS Refresh>
Holdtime: 90 Preference: 170
Number of flaps: 0
Peer ID: 100.1.1.2       Local ID: 100.1.1.1         Active Holdtime: 90
Keepalive Interval: 30         Peer index: 0
BFD: disabled, down
Local Interface: ge-1/1/0.110
NLRI for restart configured on peer: inet-unicast
NLRI advertised by peer: inet-unicast
NLRI for this session: inet-unicast
Peer supports Refresh capability (2)
Stale routes from peer are kept for: 300
Peer does not support Restarter functionality
NLRI that restart is negotiated for: inet-unicast
NLRI of received end-of-rib markers: inet-unicast
NLRI of all end-of-rib markers sent: inet-unicast
Peer supports 4 byte AS extension (peer-as 65502)
Peer does not support Addpath
Table inet.0 Bit: 10000
RIB State: BGP restart is complete
Send state: in sync
Active prefixes:              0
Received prefixes:            0
Accepted prefixes:            0
Suppressed due to damping:    0
Advertised prefixes:          3
Last traffic (seconds): Received 2    Sent 21   Checked 20
Input messages:  Total 50     Updates 2       Refreshes 0     Octets 1038
Output messages: Total 52     Updates 3       Refreshes 0     Octets 1169
Output Queue[0]: 0

Output fields do comando show bgp neighbor:

Peer: Displays the address of each BGP peer; each peer has one line of output.
Type: Displays the type of peer ( Internal  or  External ).
State: Displays the BGP state for this neighbor.
Flags: Displays the internal peer-specific flags for this neighbor.
Last State: Displays the BGP state of this neighbor prior to the current state.
Last Event: Displays the last BGP state transition event.
Last Error: Displays the last notification message sent to the neighbor.
Options: Displays the configuration options in effect for this neighbor.
Holdtime : Displays the configured hold time for this neighbor.
Preference: Displays the configuration preference for routes learned from the neighbor.
Peer ID: Displays the neighbor’s router ID.
Local ID : Displays the local system’s router ID.
Active Holdtime: Displays the hold-time value that was negotiated during the BGP open.
Table inet.0 Bit : Displays the Internal bit used for the peer group.
Send state: Displays whether all peers in the group have received all their updates ( in sync or  out of
sync).
Active Prefixes: Displays the number of prefixes accepted as active from this neighbor.
Last traffic (seconds): Displays how recently a BGP message was sent or received between the local
system and this neighbor.
Output Queue: Displays the number of BGP update messages pending for transmission to the neighbor.
Deleted routes: Displays the prefixes queued for withdrawal through pending update messages.
Queued AS Path: Displays an AS path queued for transmission in an update message.

[email protected]# run show bgp group
Group Type: External                               Local AS: 65501
Name: ext             Index: 0                   Flags: <Export Eval>
Export: [ policy-out ]
Holdtime: 0
Total peers: 1        Established: 1
172.16.110.2+53009
inet.0: 0/0/0/0

Groups: 1  Peers: 1    External: 1    Internal: 0    Down peers: 0   Flaps: 1
Table          Tot Paths  Act Paths Suppressed    History Damp State    Pending
inet.0
0          0          0          0          0          0

Output fields do comando show bgp group :

Group Type: Displays the type of BGP group. It can be either  Internal  or  External .
• AS: Displays the number of the remote AS. For IBGP, this  number should be the same as the local AS number.
• Local AS : Displays the number of the local AS.
• Export : Displays the export policies configured for the BGP group with the export statement.
• Total peers : Displays the total number of peers in the group.
• Established : Displays the number of peers within the group that are in the established state.
• ip addresses: Displays the list of peers that are members of the group; the address is followed by the peer’s
port number.
• Options: Displays configured BGP options; these options can be one or more of the following:
– Local address : Displays the address configured with the  local-address  statement.
– NLRI: Displays the configured MBGP state for the BGP group; it can be either multicast or unicast, or both if
you have configured  nlri any .
– Hold time: Displays the hold time configured with the  hold-time statement; the default hold time is
90 seconds.
– Preference: Displays the preference value configured with the  preference statement; the default
preference value is 170.

Displaying Received BGP Routes

!O IP a usar deve ser o local do router usao para fazer peering
[email protected]# run show route advertising-protocol bgp ?
Possible completions:
<neighbor>           IP address of neighbor (local for RIP and RIPng)
!O IP e o do neighbor
[email protected]# run show route receive-protocol bgp ?
Possible completions:
<peer>               IP address of neighbo

!Rotas advertidas depois de aplicar o export policy
[email protected]# run show route advertising-protocol bgp 172.16.110.1

inet.0: 6 destinations, 6 routes (6 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Prefix                  Nexthop              MED     Lclpref    AS path
* 9.9.9.9/32              Self                 100                200 [65501] I
* 10.210.14.128/27        Self                 100                200 [65501] I
* 172.16.110.0/24         Self                 100                200 [65501] I

!Rotas recebidas antes de aplicar o import policy
[email protected]# run show route receive-protocol bgp 172.16.110.1

inet.0: 7 destinations, 9 routes (7 active, 0 holddown, 0 hidden)
Prefix                  Nexthop              MED     Lclpref    AS path
* 9.9.9.9/32              172.16.110.1         100                200 65501 I
10.210.14.128/27        172.16.110.1         100                200 65501 I
172.16.110.0/24         172.16.110.1         100                200 65501 I
Referências:

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 1

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 2

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 3

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 4

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 5

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 6

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 7

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 8

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 9

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 10

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 11

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 10

Nota: Este Post faz parte do guide de Routing.

OSPF Routers

Area border router (ABR) – conectado a 2 areas, em que uma delas é a area 0
Autonomous system boundary router (ASBR)
Backbone router – contido apenas na area 0
Internal router – contido apenas numa area

OSPF Area Types

Intra-Area routes
External routes
Inter-Area routes

A config de Stub Area injecta uma default route, e remove as external routes.
A Totally Stubby Area recebem apenas a default route. O ABR não envia LSA type 3/4/5
Apenas o Not-so-stubby-area (NNSA) permite injectar rotas externas dentro de uma area, de qualquer forma external routes não são enviados para a area NSSA (ABR não envia LSA type 4/5)

LSA Types

Type 1 – Router
Type 2 – Network
Type 3 – Summary
Type 4 – ASBR Summary
Type 5 – External
Type 7 – NSSA External
Type 6 – Multicast OSPF LSA
Type 8 – External attributes LSA
Type 9 – Opaque LSA (link scope)
Type 10 – Opaque LSA (area scope—used for traffic engineering)
Type 11 – Opaque LSA (AS scope)
Para restringir os LSA type 3 no NSSA usar o comando no-summaries

junOS OS OSPF Support

Suporta:
OSPVv2/v3
Autenticacao (MD5) e IPsec
Summarization
External prefix limits – Limitar o numero de prefixos external usando prefix-export-limit.By default sem limite
Graceful restart (GR) – By default disabled. O router informa os neighbors antes de reiniciar. Os neighbors continuam a enviar tráfego para o router pensando que este continua na topologia.E definido um período em que os neighbors consideram o router parte de topologia.
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) – Os timers sao adaptive. Por exemplo, o timer pode adaptar-se a um valor + alto se a adjacência falhar, ou um neighbor negociar um valor + alto que o configurado

Basic Configuration

!IPv4
set protocols ospf area interface

!IPv6
set protocols ospf3 area interface

Determining the Router ID

!Config explicitamente o RID
set routing-options router-id 192.168.100.1

O junOS define o router-id através de um loopback com mask diferente de 127/8 em primeiro lugar, senão existitir nenhum loopback
O junOS usa o próximo IP disponível, tipicamente a dedicated management interface.

Configuring OSPF

!Manipular custo do OSPF na interface
set protocols ospf area 0.0.0.1 interface ge-1/0/0.0 metric 100
set protocols ospf area 0.0.0.1 interface lo0.0

O custo de uma interface no OSPF e definido pela formula:
cost = reference-bandwidth / bandwidth

!By default reference bandwidth e de 100mbps
[email protected]# set protocols ospf reference-bandwidth ?
Possible completions:
Bandwidth for calculating metric defaults

Defining and Applying the Redistribution Policy

set policy-options policy-statement 2ospf term match-direct-route from protocol direct
set policy-options policy-statement 2ospf term match-direct-route from route-filter 172.18.1.0/24 exact
set policy-options policy-statement 2ospf term match-direct-route then accept

set protocols ospf export 2ospf

[email protected]> show ospf neighbor extensive
Address          Interface              State     ID               Pri  Dead
172.26.1.1       ge-0/0/3.0             Full      192.168.1.1      128    33
Area 0.0.0.1, opt 0x42, DR 172.26.1.2, BDR 172.26.1.1
Up 22:01:45, adjacent 22:01:37
Topology default (ID 0) -> Bidirectional
172.26.2.2       ge-0/0/1.0             Full      192.168.1.3      128    32
Area 0.0.0.0, opt 0x42, DR 172.26.2.2, BDR 172.26.2.1
Up 1d 03:41:28, adjacent 1d 03:41:28
Topology default (ID 0) -> Bidirectional
172.26.3.2       ge-0/0/2.0             Full      192.168.1.3      128    34
Area 0.0.0.0, opt 0x42, DR 172.26.3.2, BDR 172.26.3.1
Up 1d 03:43:14, adjacent 1d 03:43:14
Topology default (ID 0) -> Bidirectional

O campos de output são :
• Address: Displays the address of the neighbor.
• Intf: Displays the interface through which the neighbor is reachable.
• State: Displays the state of the neighbor, which can be  Attempt,  Down,  Exchange ,  ExStart,  Full,  Init,
Loading, or  2Way.
• ID: Displays the RID of the neighbor.
• Pri : Displays the priority of the neighb or to become the designated router.
• Dead: Displays the number of seconds until the neighbor becomes unreachable.
• area (detail and extensive output only): Displays the area in which the neighbor is located.
• opt  (detail and extensive output only): Displays the option bits from the neighbor.
• DR (detail and extensive output only): Displays the address of the designated router.
• BDR  (detail and extensive output only): Displays the address of the BDR.
• Up (detail and extensive output only): Displays the length of time since the neighbor came up.
• adjacent  (detail and extensive output only): Displays the le ngth of time since the adjacency with the neighbor was established.

!Remover as adjacências
clear ospf neighbor

Referências:

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 1

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 2

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 3

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 4

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 5

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 6

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 7

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 8

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 9

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 9

Nota: Este Post faz parte do guide de Routing.

Chapter 3 Open Shortest Path First

OSPF Packet Types

Type 1 – Hello
Type 2 – Database Description
Type 3 – Link-State Request
Type 4 – Link-State Update
Type 5 – Link-State Acknowledgment

Hello Packet

Enviado para 224.0.0.5 a cada 10 segundos
Pacote com os seguintes headers:
Network mask*
Hello interval*
Dead interval*
Options*
Router Priority
Designated router
Backup designated router
Neighbor

*Os fields devem fazem match para formar adjacência sob um broadcast medium. O Network Mask não requer match em links point-to-point

Database Description Packet

Usados apenas durante a adjacência, serve para indicar o responsavel pelo processo database synchronization e transferir os LSA headers entre devices.

O Router com RID superior e indicado como Master no processo database synchronization, o Master define e mantém a sequence numbers na transferência.

Database Description fields:
OSPF header
Sequence number
LSA header

Link-State Request

Se a database não tiver nenhum refresh requisita informação ao neighbor

Link-State Request fields:
OSPF header
Link-state type
Link-state ID
Advertising router

Link-State Update

Contem diversos LSAs, é transmitido através do 224.0.0.5 ou 224.0.0.6 dependendo do link type. São transmitidos com base em Request na formação inicial da adjacência

Link-State Update fields:
OSPF header
Number of advertisements
Link-state advertisements

Link-State Acknowledgment

Estes pacotes são recebidos em resposta aos LSA Update enviados.

Forming Adjacency

Adjacency states:
Down
Init
2Way – Existe comunicacao bidirecional
ExStart – determina qual o router Master/Slave
Exchange – trocam os LSA headers das suas databases, caso o router não conheça um LSA header faz LSA requests a solicitar a restante informação
Loading – Indica que o route continua a receber informação do peer
Full – As databases estão síncronas, estado convergente

[email protected]# set protocols ospf area 0.0.0.0 interface ge-1/1/0.110

[email protected]# run show ospf interface
Interface           State   Area            DR ID           BDR ID          Nbrs
ge-1/1/0.110        DR      0.0.0.0         10.210.14.132   0.0.0.0            0

[email protected]# set protocols ospf area 0.0.0.0 interface ge-1/1/0.110 interface-type p2p

[email protected]# run show ospf interface
Interface           State   Area            DR ID           BDR ID          Nbrs
ge-1/1/0.110        PtToPt  0.0.0.0         0.0.0.0         0.0.0.0            0

Electing a Dedignated Router

Elegido DR com Best Priority (valores [1- 255]), by default 128. O Tie-breaker é o RID + alto
O processo para eleger o BDR é idêntico, este assume funções caso detecte que o DR fique indisponível
Priority = 0 não é considerado no processo de seleção e o estado é DRother

Não existe preempt, se um router com melhor priority ficar activo e já existir um DR, o DR não é substituído

OSPF Neighbor Relationship

O state away existe entre routers DROther (non-DR/BDR)

OSPF Areas

O tráfego interarea transita pelo backbone (area 0), este comportamento pode ser alterado usando multi-area adjacency na mesma logical interface eliminando assim a necessidade do tráfego interarea transitar pelo backbone. Multi-area adjacency documentada no RFC 5185

Referências:

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 1

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 2

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 3

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 4

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 5

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 6

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 7

Notas estudo JNCIS-ENT parte 8