Category Archives: Misc

Cisco nV Technology

Cisco nV allows you to simplify operations and deployment of new services across different boundaries in a Service Provider network. But what is exactly this technology? It’s a single logical switch/router built by interconnecting an ASR9K and one or more smaller satellite switches. This switches act as a remote line cards, they are provisioned in ASR9K (called Host).

Architecture

cisco_nv

nV Edge Overview

cisco_nv7

 

nV System Overview

cisco_nv4

  • Control plane extension: Active RSP and standby RSP are on the different chassis,
    they sync up via external EOBC links “AS IF” they are in the same physical chassis
  • Data plane extension: bundle regular data links into special “nV fabric link” to simulate
    switch fabric function between two physical chassis to data packet across
  • No dedicated fabric chassis -> flexible co-located or different location deployment (No distance limitation)

nV Satellite

cisco_nv5

  • All Satellite Configuration is done on the Host (zero touch)
  • nV Satellite can greatly simplify access and aggregation networks
  • Support flexible access and agg network topologies
  • Satellite is a remote line card: Access ports have feature parity with ASR9K local ports
  • nV Satellite interface naming follows the same local interface naming convention:sat-ID / sat-slot / sat-bay / sat-port

Control Plane

Discovery Phase

  • CDP like protocol to discover Satellites
  • Heartbeat sent every second to detect failures

Control Phase

  • Inter-process Communication Channel (TCP socket)

Dataplane

On Satellite

  • Add nV-Tag to frames before forward to Edge

On the Host

  • Receive Frames with nV-Tag identifies Satellite Virtual Interface

Satellite Deployment Models

Mode 1: Static pinning (Any access ports could be mapped to any single fabric port.)

Mode 2:Fabric bundle (access ports are mapped to a fabric bundle)

Satellite Types: asr9000v, asr901, asr903

cisco_nv2

nV Satellite L2fabric, Ring Topologies

Since XR 5.1.1

  • Extending satellite connection across a Layer 2 network
  • A native 802.1Q tag is added to the Satellite-Host control and data plane protocol
  • Expanding to support ring, & cascaded topologies
  • Maintains the same plug & play operationalsimplicity
  • CFM/CCM used for fast failure detection*

* CFM/CCM for simple ring and cascading will be in future releases

cisco_nv6

References:

BRKARC-2024 – Cisco ASR 9000 nV Technology and Deployment (2014 San Francisco)

Cisco IOS-XR Basics

IOS-XR code is really new for me, so i will write a few posts about it. So i will start with the basics. You can see this Operating System on CRS generations, ASR 9000 and NCS Box’s.

Configure Username and Group

The root-system means priviledge 15 in normal IOS

RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config)#username cocheno
RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config-un)# group root-system
RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config-un)# password cocheno

The predefined groups are as follows:

  • cisco-support: This group is used by the Cisco support team.
  • netadmin: Has the ability to control and monitor all system and network parameters.
  • operator: A demonstration group with basic privileges.
  • root-lr: Has the ability to control and monitor the specific secure domain router.
  • root-system: Has the ability to control and monitor the entire system.
  • sysadmin: Has the ability to control and monitor all system parameters but cannot configure network protocols.
  • serviceadmin: Service administration tasks, for example, Session Border Controller (SBC).

Configure Hostname

RP/0/0/CPU0:XR(config)#hostname XR-4
RP/0/0/CPU0:XR(config)#commit

Assigning IP Addresses

IOS-XR has some alias configured, it will interpret correctly if you not use ipv4 in this case

RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config)#int gigabitEthernet 0/0/0/0.201
RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1q 201
RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config-subif)#ip?
ipv4 ipv6
RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config-subif)#ip add 10.202.201.40 255.255.255.0

Check where your are in config hierarchy

RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config-subif)#pwdSun Mar 6 17:37:05.948 UTC
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0/0.201
RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-5(config-subif)#

Save Config

Saving the Config is a 2 step, you work on a candidate config instead of running-config protecting you from misconfig.

Showing config before commit it in running-config

RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config)#show configuration
Sun Mar 6 16:03:23.913 UTC
Building configuration…
!! IOS XR Configuration 5.2.2
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0/0.201
ipv4 address 10.202.201.40 255.255.255.0
encapsulation dot1q 201
!
endRP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config)#commit
Sun Mar 6 16:05:19.315 UTC

we can also assign a label to the commit, and rollback based on it as well

RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config)#commit label IPV4_v201

Rolling back change we did previously

RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4#rollback configuration last 1
Sun Mar 6 16:10:35.003 UTC
Loading Rollback Changes.
Loaded Rollback Changes in 1 sec
Committing.
4 items committed in 1 sec (3)items/sec
Updating.
Updated Commit database in 1 sec
Configuration successfully rolled back 1 commits.

You can use a time based commit, you need to accept the commit in 120 seconds, or it will rollback the changes

RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config)#commit confirmed 120

Check the last system commits

RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config)#show config commit list detail
Sun Mar 6 16:21:30.499 UTC1) CommitId: 1000000004 Label: IPV4_v201
UserId: cisco Line: con0_0_CPU0
Client: CLI Time: Sun Mar 6 16:21:28 2016
Comment: NONE2) CommitId: 1000000003 Label: NONE
UserId: cisco Line: con0_0_CPU0
Client: Rollback Time: Sun Mar 6 16:10:36 2016
Comment: NONE

 

RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4#show configuration rollback changes last 1
Sun Mar 6 16:24:50.435 UTC
Building configuration…
!! IOS XR Configuration 5.2.2
no interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0/0.201
end

Configure Telnet/SSH

RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config)#telnet vrf default ipv4 server max-servers 5
RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4#crypto key generate dsa
Sun Mar 6 17:52:29.135 UTC
The name for the keys will be: the_default
Choose the size of your DSA key modulus. Modulus size can be 512, 768, or 1024 bits. Choosing a key modulus
How many bits in the modulus [1024]:
Generating DSA keys …
Done w/ crypto generate keypair
[OK]RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4#conf t
Sun Mar 6 17:52:44.114 UTC
RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config)#domain name cocheno.com
RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config)#ssh server v2
RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config)#commit

Check SSH Sessions

RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-5#show ssh
Sun Mar 6 17:55:15.633 UTC
SSH version : Cisco-2.0id pty location state userid host ver authentication
—————————————————————————————————————
Incoming sessions
0 vty0 0/0/CPU0 SESSION_OPEN cisco 10.202.201.150 v2 password

Check commit failures

RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config)#show configuration failed

After you change candidate config, you can abort without commit it

RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config)#abort

Replace the entire config by the candidate, if your candidate is empty will you have factory default

RP/0/0/CPU0:XR-4(config)#commit replace
Sun Mar 6 16:47:46.101 UTCThis commit will replace or remove the entire running configuration. This
operation can be service affecting.
Do you wish to proceed? [no]:

Upgrade HP Blade Switch

6120XG-Blade-Switch# show flash
—– ———- ——– ——-
Primary Image : 7865855 10/23/13

Z.14.46

Secondary Image : 7785535 06/20/11

Z.14.28

Boot Rom Version: Z.14.09
Default Boot : Primary

Copy Primary to Secondary Image. This is CPU intensive operation and takes a few seconds

6120XG-Blade-Switch# copy flash flash secondary
—– ———- ——– ——-
Primary Image : 7865855 10/23/13 Z.14.46
Secondary Image : 7865855 10/23/13

Z.14.46

Boot Rom Version: Z.14.09
Default Boot : Primary

Copy from tftp to flash (primary image) using oobm interface

6120XG-Blade-Switch# copy tftp flash 10.1.0.103 Z_14_52.swi primary oobm
The Primary OS Image will be deleted, continue [y/n]? y
00009K
(omitted)
07509K
Validating and Writing System Software to FLASH…
6120XG-Blade-Switch# reload
Device will be rebooted, do you want to continue [y/n]? y

After blade come up, if you need reuse the old image just do the following

6120XG-Blade-Switch(config)# boot system flash secondary
Device will be rebooted, do you want to continue [y/n]?

CCNP Switch 642-813

Após 3 meses intensivos de estudo, fui fazer o exame e concluí o módulo CCNP Switch 642-813, este tinha 40 questões das quais cerca de 5 eram simulações (VLAN, VTP, Routing Dinâmico, 802.1x, LACP). O Score mínimo para passar no exame é de 790 dos 1000 possíveis.
Vou iniciar o módulo de Routing :) CCNP ROUTE 642-902