Notas estudo JNCIA-Junos parte 2

Help

O JunOS tem integrado um livraria que permite por exemplo ver qual o significado do output de uma mensagem de syslog.

[email protected]# help ?
Possible completions:
<[Enter]>            Execute this command
apropos              Find help information about a topic
reference            Reference material
syslog               System log error messages
tip                  Tip for the day
topic                Help for high level topics
|                    Pipe through a command

Separation of configuration edit and activation

validation checks
version control
automated rollback

candidate configuration ->commit->validated configuration->active configuration

configure private – permite que todos os users alterem em simultâneo a active config

configure exclusive – proíbe  outros efetuarem alterações enquanto estiver conectado ao device

show command – mostra a config candidate relativamente a hierarquia onde se está inserido no momento

Set/Edit Command

From Top
[email protected]#set sytem services finger
[email protected]#set sytem services ftp
[email protected]#set sytem services ssh

From Sublevel
[email protected]#edit system services
[edit system services]
[email protected]#set finger
[email protected]#ser ftp
[email protected]#set ssh

Rollback

Apenas modifica a candidate config (não esquecer do commit)

rollback 0 – reset a candidate para a config atualmente ativa+
rollback n – n representa o numero da config ativa
rollback rescue – load o rescue file previamente criado

Fazer commit num determinado período

[email protected]#commit at 02:00:00

run command – permite executar comandos em config mode como se estivesse no Operational mode

Junos Sytem Health
Real-time Performance Monitoring (RPM)
Flow accounting – cflowd

Health monitor
RMON

Junos Sytem Health Diagnostic

System logging
hardware and operating events
Trace logging
protocol operations
snmp

Routing tables

Predefined Routing tables
inet.0 ipv4 unicast
inet.1 multicast forwarding cache
inet.2 usado para MBGP para permitir reverse path forwarding (RPF) checks
inet.3 usado para MPLS path information
inet.4 usado para MSDP routes
inet6.0 Usado para IPv6 unicast
mpls.0 usado para MPLS next hops

Route preference = Administrative Distance (Cisco World)

DIRECT 0
LOCAL 0
STATIC 5
OSPF internal 10
RIP 100
OSPF AS external 150
BGP (both EBGP and IBGP) 170

show route forwarding-table – existe uma entrada default para quando o prefix não existe, notificando a source device com ICMP unreachable

Default Routing Instance

A tabela default unicast de nome master e inclui a inet.0, e poderá tb incluir a inet6.0

show route instance

User-Defined instances

edit routing-instances new-instance instance-type instance-type

Existem diversos tipos de instances:

forwarding – Forwarding instance
l2vpn – Layer 2 VPN routing instance
layer2-control -Layer 2 control protocols
no-forwarding -Nonforwarding instance
virtual-router -Virtual routing instance
virtual-switch -Virtual switch routing instance
vpls -VPLS routing instance
vrf -Virtual routing forwarding instance

show route table new-instace.inet.0

Rotas estáticas

O next-hop pode ser a opção de bit bucket, as opções de discard/reject permite descartar o tráfego.

discard – faz drop silenciosamente (não envia ICMP)
reject – envia ICMP unreachable

set routing-options
static{
route 0.0.0.0/0 next-hop 172.30.25.1;
route 172.28.102.0/24 {
next-hop 10.210.11.190;
no-readdvertise;
resolve;
}
}

O nex-hop deve ser directamente ligado, porque by default o JunOS não faz lookups recursivos. Para permitir é necessário usar o comando resolve

Qualified Next hops

Permite indicar a preferência de uma rota (floating route)

qualified-next-hop x.x.x.x {
preference 7;
}

Config OSPF

Apartir da versão 8.x o Loop0/router-id é advertido automaticamente

set protocols ospf
set area 0 interface ge-0/0/1.{0} Se a unit não for referenciada, o JunOS considera como 0
set area 0 interface ge-0/0/3.0 passive

O JunOS converte a area 0 para decimal 0.0.0.0

show
area 0.0.0.0 {
interface ge-0/0/1.0;
interface ge-0/0/2.0;
interface ge-0/0/3.0 {
passive;
}

show ospf neighbor {detail,extensive}
show route protocol ospf

NETCONF XML Interface

set system load patch terminal

NTP

Para o sistema sincronizar quando faz booting é necessário configurar:

set system ntp boot-server 1.1.1.1

set system time-zone Europe/Lisbon

request system configuration rescue {save | delete} – efetua uma cópia da actual config como rescue config

rollback rescue – este comando apenas altera a candidate config

Operational Mode

show system  command arguments:
alarms: Displays  current system  alarms
boot-messages: Displays the messages seen during the last system boot
connections: Displays the status of local TCP and UDP connections
processes: Displays the system’s process table
statistics : Provides options for viewing various protocol statistics
storage: Displays the status of the file system storage space.

show version detail (inclui as versões das pacotes instalados)

Junos Naming Convention

Package-release-edition

jroute-10.1R1.8-domestic-signed.tgz
release:
• Describes the Junos version
• Includes major and minor release numbers, release type (Release,Beta or Internal), build number and spin number
edition:
• Versions are either domestic-supporting strong encryption, or export-not supporting encryption
• Federal Information Processing Standards (or FIPS) editions provide advanced network security

the letter is an R to
indicate that this is released software. If you are involved in testing prereleased software,
this letter might be a B (for beta-level software) or I (for internal, test, or experimental
versions of software). The release also includes a build and spin number for the Junos
version.
Here, the release is 9.5R1.8, which is  version 9.5, which has been released, build 1,
spin 8.-signed.tgz – Junos software is digitally signed and compressed using Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1) and
Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums.
A package is installed only if the checksum within it matches the hash recorded in its corresponding file. The actual checksum used depends on the software version.

Package :
jinstall usado nas M/Mx/T Series
jinstall-ex usado nos EX Series,
junos-jsr usado J Series
junos-srx usado nos SRX Series

Upgrading JunOS

>reques system software add /var/tmp/jbundle-10.1R1.8-domestic.tgz reboot

Commands Useful in Upgrading Software:
• request system software add /var/tmp/<image-name> upgrades software
• request system storage cleanup  deletes images
• show system storagedisplays compact-flash  device storage  details
• request system software add /var/tmp/<image-name> reboot  upgrades the software

Permite verificar quais os ficheiros a serem eliminados

[email protected]> request system storage ?
Possible completions:
cleanup              Clean up temporary files and rotate logs
[email protected]> request system storage cleanup ?
Possible completions:
<[Enter]>            Execute this command
dry-run              Only list the cleanup candidates, do not remove them

[email protected]> request system storage cleanup dry-run

Referências:

Notas estudo JNCIA-Junos parte 1

4 thoughts on “Notas estudo JNCIA-Junos parte 2

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